Un article scientifique de synthèse sur les potentialités et les verrous à lever pour estimer l’état hydrique des végétaux en agriculture. Les auteurs, des chercheurs des universités das Lagoas-Marcosende (Espagneà et Austral du Chili, ont fait une synthèse de tous les articles scientifiques traitant de l’utilisation des drônes pour la détection de l’état hydrique des cultures. Leur étude met en évidence l’intérêt de développer de nouvelles plateformes de détection associant la mesure de la fluorescence de la Chlorophylle pour des applications en lien avec le pilotage de l’irrigation, mais aussi le phénotypage rapide. Le résumé en anglais ci-après :
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) present an exciting opportunity to monitor crop fields with high spatial and temporal resolution remote sensing capable of improving water stress management in agriculture. In this study, we reviewed the application of different types of UAVs using different remote sensors and compared their performance with ground-truth plant data. Several reflectance indices, such as NDVI, TCARI/OSAVI and PRInorm obtained from UAVs have shown positive correlations related to water stress indicators such as water potential (Ψ) and stomatal conductance (gs). Nevertheless, they have performed differently in diverse crops; thus, their uses and applications are also discussed in this study. Thermal imagery is also a common remote sensing technology used to assess water stress in plants, via thermal indices (calculated using artificial surfaces as references), estimates of the difference between canopy and air temperature, and even canopy conductance estimates derived from leaf energy balance models. These indices have shown a great potential to determine field stress heterogeneity using unmanned aerial platforms. It has also been proposed that chlorophyll fluorescence could be an even better indicator of plant photosynthesis and water use efficiency under water stress. Therefore, developing systems and methodologies to easily retrieve fluorescence from UAVs should be a priority for the near future. After a decade of work with UAVs, recently emerging technologies have developed more user-friendly aerial platforms, such as the multi-copters, which offer industry, science, and society new opportunities. Their use as high-throughput phenotyping platforms for real field conditions and also for water stress management increasing temporal and resolution scales could improve our capacity to determine important crop traits such as yield or stress tolerance for breeding purposes.
J. Gagoa, C. Doutheb, R.E. Coopmanc, P.P. Gallegoa, M. Ribas-Carbob, J. Flexasb, J. Escalonab, H. Medranob, 2015. UAVs challenge to assess water stress for sustainable agriculture, Agriculture Water Management, 153, 9–19.